DsExcel.NET provides support for the following builtin functions, listed alphabetically.
Function Name  Function Category  Function Description 
ABS  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the absolute value of a number. 
ACCRINT  Financial  Returns the accrued interest for a urity that pays periodic interest. 
ACCRINTM  Financial  Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. 
ACOS  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arccosine of a number. 
ACOSH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. 
ACOT  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arccotangent of a number. 
ACOTH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number. 
ADDRESS  Lookup and Reference  Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet. 
AGGREGATE  Math and Trigonometry  Returns an aggregate in a list or database. 
AMORDEGRC  Financial  Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient. 
AMORLINC  Financial  Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. 
AND  Logical  Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE. 
ARABIC  Math and Trigonometry  Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number. 
AREAS  Lookup and Reference  Returns the number of areas in a reference. 
ASC  Text  Transforms fullwidth (doublebyte) characters to halfwidth (singlebyte) characters. 
ASIN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arcsine of a number. 
ASINH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. 
ATAN  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arctangent of a number. 
ATAN2  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates. 
ATANH  Math and Trigonometry  Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. 
AVEDEV  Statistical  Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. 
AVERAGE  Statistical  Returns the average of its arguments. 
AVERAGEA  Statistical  Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
AVERAGEIF  Statistical  Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria. 
AVERAGEIFS  Statistical  Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. 
BAHTTEXT  Text  Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format. 
BASE  Math and Trigonometry  Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base). 
BESSELI  Engineering  Returns the modified Bessel function In(x). 
BESSELJ  Engineering  Returns the Bessel function Jn(x). 
BESSELK  Engineering  Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x). 
BESSELY  Engineering  Returns the Bessel function Yn(x). 
BETA.DIST  Statistical  Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. 
BETA.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. 
BETADIST  Compatibility  Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. 
BETAINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. 
BIN2DEC  Engineering  Converts a binary number to decimal. 
BIN2HEX  Engineering  Converts a binary number to hexadecimal. 
BIN2OCT  Engineering  Converts a binary number to octal. 
BINOM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. 
BINOM.DIST.RANGE  Statistical  Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution. 
BINOM.INV  Statistical  Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. 
BINOMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. 
BITAND  Engineering  Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers. 
BITLSHIFT  Engineering  Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits. 
BITOR  Engineering  Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers. 
BITRSHIFT  Engineering  Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits. 
BITXOR  Engineering  Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers. 
BYCOL  Logical  Applies a LAMBDA to each column and returns an array of the results. 
BYROW  Logical  Applies a LAMBDA to each row and returns an array of the results. 
CEILING  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. 
CEILING.MATH  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. 
CELL  Information 
Returns information about a cell such as contents, formatting, location, etc. Limitations

CHAR  Text  Returns the character specified by the code number. 
CHIDIST  Compatibility  Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHIINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHISQ.DIST  Statistical  Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. 
CHISQ.DIST.RT  Statistical  Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHISQ.INV  Statistical  Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. 
CHISQ.INV.RT  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution. 
CHISQ.TEST  Statistical  Returns the test for independence. 
CHITEST  Compatibility  Returns the test for independence. 
CHOOSE  Lookup and reference  Chooses a value from a list of values. 
CHOOSECOLS  Array Manipulation  Returns specified columns from array 
CHOOSEROWS  Array Manipulation  Returns specified rows from array 
CLEAN  Text  Removes all nonprintable characters from text. 
CODE  Text  Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. 
COLUMN  Lookup and reference  Returns the column number of a reference. 
COLUMNS  Lookup and reference  Returns the number of columns in a reference. 
COMBIN  Math and trigonometry  Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects. 
COMBINA  Math and trigonometry  Returns the number of combinations for a specified number of items including the repetitions. 
COMPLEX  Engineering  Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. 
CONCAT  Text  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. 
CONCATENATE  Text  Joins several text items into one text item. 
CONFIDENCE  Compatibility  Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. 
CONFIDENCE.NORM  Statistical  Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. 
CONFIDENCE.T  Statistical  Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution. 
CONVERT  Engineering  Converts a number from one measurement system to another. 
CORREL  Statistical  Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets. 
COS  Math and trigonometry  Returns the cosine of a number. 
COSH  Math and trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. 
COT  Math and trigonometry  Returns the cotangent of an angle. 
COTH  Math and trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle. 
COUNT  Statistical  Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments. 
COUNTA  Statistical  Counts how many values are in the list of arguments. 
COUNTBLANK  Statistical  Counts the number of blank cells within a range. 
COUNTIF  Statistical  Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria. 
COUNTIFS  Statistical  Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria. 
COUPDAYBS  Financial  Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. 
COUPDAYS  Financial  Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. 
COUPDAYSNC  Financial  Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. 
COUPNCD  Financial  Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. 
COUPNUM  Financial  Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date. 
COUPPCD  Financial  Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date. 
COVAR  Compatibility  Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. 
COVARIANCE.P  Statistical  Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. 
COVARIANCE.S  Statistical  Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets. 
CRITBINOM  Compatibility  Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. 
CSC  Math and trigonometry  Returns the cosecant of an angle. 
CSCH  Math and trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. 
CUMIPMT  Financial  Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods. 
CUMPRINC  Financial  Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods. 
DATE  Date and time  Returns the serial number of a particular date. 
DATEDIF  Date and time  Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. 
DATEVALUE  Date and time  Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number. 
DAVERAGE  Database  Returns the average of selected database entries. 
DAY  Date and time  Converts a serial number to a day of the month. 
DAYS  Date and time  Returns the number of days between two dates. 
DAYS360  Date and time  Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year. 
DB  Financial  Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixeddeclining balance method. 
DBCS  Text  Transforms halfwidth (singlebyte) characters to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters. 
DCOUNT  Database  Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters. 
DCOUNTA  Database  Counts nonblank cells in a database. 
DDB  Financial  Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method that you specify. 
DEC2BIN  Engineering  Converts a decimal number to binary. 
DEC2HEX  Engineering  Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal. 
DEC2OCT  Engineering  Converts a decimal number to octal. 
DECIMAL  Math and trigonometry  Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number. 
DEGREES  Math and trigonometry  Converts radians to degrees. 
DELTA  Engineering  Tests whether two values are equal. 
DEVSQ  Statistical  Returns the sum of squares of deviations. 
DGET  Database  Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria. 
DISC  Financial  Returns the discount rate for a security. 
DMAX  Database  Returns the maximum value from selected database entries. 
DMIN  Database  Returns the minimum value from selected database entries. 
DOLLAR  Text  Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format. 
DOLLARDE  Financial  Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number. 
DOLLARFR  Financial  Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction. 
DPRODUCT  Database  Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database. 
DROP  Array Manipulation  Drops rows or columns from the beginning or the end of the provided array 
DSTDEV  Database  Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries. 
DSTDEVP  Database  Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries. 
DSUM  Database  Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria. 
DURATION  Financial  Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments. 
DVAR  Database  Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries. 
DVARP  Database  Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries. 
EDATE  Date and time  Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date. 
EFFECT  Financial  Returns the effective annual interest rate. 
ENCODEURL  Web  Returns a URLencoded string. 
EOMONTH  Date and time  Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months. 
ERF  Engineering  Returns the error function. 
ERF.PRECISE  Engineering  Returns the error function. 
ERFC  Engineering  Returns the complementary error function. 
ERFC.PRECISE  Engineering  Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity. 
ERROR.TYPE  Information  Returns a number corresponding to an error type. 
EUROCONVERT  Addin and Automation  Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). 
EVEN  Math and Trigonometry  Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. 
EXACT  Text  Checks to see if two text values are identical. 
EXP  Math and Trigonometry  Returns e raised to the power of a given number. 
EXPAND  Array Manipulation  Expands array to a specified dimension 
EXPON.DIST  Statistical  Returns the exponential distribution. 
EXPONDIST  Compatibility  Returns the exponential distribution. 
F.DIST  Statistical  Returns the F probability distribution 
F.DIST.RT  Statistical  Returns the F probability distribution 
F.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. 
F.INV.RT  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. 
F.TEST  Statistical  Returns the result of an Ftest. 
FACT  Math and trigonometry  Returns the factorial of a number. 
FACTDOUBLE  Math and trigonometry  Returns the double factorial of a number. 
FALSE  Logical  Returns the logical value FALSE. 
FDIST  Compatibility  Returns the F probability distribution. 
FILTER  Lookup and reference  Filters a range of data based on criteria you define. 
FILTERXML  Web  Returns specific data from the XML content using the specified XPath. 
FIND  Text 
Finds one text value within another (casesensitive). 
FINDB  Text 
Finds one text value within another (casesensitive). FINDB counts each doublebyte character as 2 when you have enabled the editing of a language that supports DBCS and then set it as the default language. Otherwise, FINDB behaves the same as FIND, counting each character as 1. 
FINV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. 
FISHER  Statistical  Returns the Fisher transformation. 
FISHERINV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. 
FIXED  Text  Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals. 
FLOOR  Compatibility  Rounds a number down, toward zero. 
FLOOR.MATH  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. 
FLOOR.PRECISE  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. 
FORECAST  Statistical  Returns a value along a linear trend. 
FORMULATEXT  Lookup and reference  Returns the formula at the given reference as text. 
FREQUENCY  Statistical  Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array. 
FTEST  Compatibility  Returns the result of an Ftest. 
FV  Financial  Returns the future value of an investment. 
FVSCHEDULE  Financial  Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. 
GAMMA  Statistical  Returns the Gamma function value. 
GAMMA.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Gamma distribution. 
GAMMA.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. 
GAMMADIST  Compatibility  Returns the gamma distribution. 
GAMMAINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. 
GAMMALN  Statistical  Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x). 
GAMMALN.PRECISE  Statistical  Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x). 
GAUSS  Statistical  Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution. 
GCD  Math and trigonometry  Returns the greatest common divisor. 
GEOMEAN  Statistical  Returns the geometric mean. 
GESTEP  Engineering  Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value. 
GETPIVOTDATA  Lookup and reference  Returns visible data from a pivot table. 
GROWTH  Statistical  Returns values along an exponential trend. 
HARMEAN  Statistical  Returns the harmonic mean. 
HEX2BIN  Engineering  Converts a hexadecimal number to binary. 
HEX2DEC  Engineering  Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal. 
HEX2OCT  Engineering  Converts a hexadecimal number to octal. 
HLOOKUP  Lookup and reference  Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell. 
HOUR  Date and time  Converts a serial number to an hour. 
HSTACK  Array Manipulation  Stack arrays horizontally 
HYPERLINK  Lookup and reference  Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet. 
HYPGEOM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the hypergeometric distribution. 
HYPGEOMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the hypergeometric distribution. 
IF  Logical  Specifies a logical test to perform 
IFERROR  Logical  Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula. 
IFNA  Logical  Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression. 
IFS  Logical  Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.. 
IMABS  Engineering  Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number. 
IMAGINARY  Engineering  Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. 
IMARGUMENT  Engineering  Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians. 
IMCONJUGATE  Engineering  Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number. 
IMCOS  Engineering  Returns the cosine of a complex number. 
IMCOSH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number. 
IMCOT  Engineering  Returns the cotangent of a complex number. 
IMCSC  Engineering  Returns the cosecant of a complex number. 
IMCSCH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number. 
IMDIV  Engineering  Returns the quotient of two complex numbers. 
IMEXP  Engineering  Returns the exponential of a complex number. 
IMLN  Engineering  Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number. 
IMLOG10  Engineering  Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number. 
IMLOG2  Engineering  Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number. 
IMPOWER  Engineering  Returns a complex number raised to an integer power. 
IMPRODUCT  Engineering  Returns the product of complex numbers. 
IMREAL  Engineering  Returns the real coefficient of a complex number. 
IMSEC  Engineering  Returns the secant of a complex number. 
IMSECH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number. 
IMSIN  Engineering  Returns the sine of a complex number. 
IMSINH  Engineering  Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number. 
IMSQRT  Engineering  Returns the square root of a complex number. 
IMSUB  Engineering  Returns the difference between two complex numbers. 
IMSUM  Engineering  Returns the sum of complex numbers. 
IMTAN  Engineering  Returns the tangent of a complex number. 
INDEX  Lookup and reference  Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. 
INDIRECT  Lookup and reference  Returns a reference indicated by a text value. 
INT  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. 
INTERCEPT  Statistical  Returns the intercept of the linear regression line. 
INTRATE  Financial  Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. 
IPMT  Financial  Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period. 
IRR  Financial  Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flowsReturns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. 
ISBLANK  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is blank. 
ISERR  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A. 
ISERROR  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is any error value. 
ISEVEN  Information  Returns TRUE if the number is even. 
ISFORMULA  Information  Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula. 
ISLOGICAL  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value. 
ISNA  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value. 
ISNONTEXT  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is not text. 
ISNUMBER  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is a number. 
ISO.CEILING  Math and trigonometry  Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. 
ISODD  Information  Returns TRUE if the number is odd. 
ISOMITTED  Information  Checks whether the value in a LAMBDA is missing and returns TRUE or FALSE. 
ISOWEEKNUM  Date and time  Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date. 
ISPMT  Financial  Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. 
ISREF  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is a reference. 
ISTEXT  Information  Returns TRUE if the value is text. 
JIS  Text  Converts halfwidth (singlebyte) letters within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters. 
KURT  Statistical  Returns TRUE if the value is text. 
LAMBDA  Math and trigonometry  Returns custom reusable functions that can be called like any other function. 
LARGE  Statistical  Returns the kth largest value in a data set. 
LCM  Math and trigonometry  Returns the least common multiple. 
LEFT  Text  Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. 
LEFTB  Text 
Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. LEFTB counts 2 bytes per character when a DBCS language is set as the default language. Otherwise behaves the same as LEFT, counting 1 byte per character. 
LEN  Text  Returns the number of characters in a text string. 
LENB  Text 
Returns the number of characters in a text string. LENB counts 2 bytes per character when a DBCS language is set as the default language. Otherwise behaves the same as LEN, counting 1 byte per character. 
LET  Logical 
Assigns names to calculation results. 
LINEST  Statistical  Returns the parameters of a linear trend. 
LN  Math and trigonometry  Returns the natural logarithm of a number. 
LOG  Math and trigonometry  Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. 
LOG10  Math and trigonometry  Returns the base10 logarithm of a number. 
LOGEST  Statistical  Returns the parameters of an exponential trend. 
LOGINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. 
LOGNORM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. 
LOGNORM.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. 
LOGNORMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. 
LOOKUP  Lookup and reference  Looks up values in a vector or array. 
LOWER  Text  Converts text to lowercase. 
MAKEARRAY  Logical  Returns a calculated array of a specified row and column size, by applying a LAMBDA. 
MAP  Logical  Returns an array formed by mapping each value in the array(s) to a new value by applying a LAMBDA to create a new value. 
MATCH  Lookup and reference  Looks up values in a reference or array. 
MAX  Statistical  Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments. 
MAXA  Statistical  Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
MAXIFS  Statistical  Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. 
MDETERM  Math and trigonometry  Returns the matrix determinant of an array. 
MDURATION  Financial  Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100. 
MEDIAN  Statistical  Returns the median of the given numbers. 
MID  Text 
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. 
MIDB  Text 
Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. MIDB counts each doublebyte character as 2 when you have enabled the editing of a language that supports DBCS and then set it as the default language. Otherwise, MIDB behaves the same as MID, counting each character as 1. 
MIN  Statistical  Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments. 
MINA  Statistical  Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
MINIFS  Statistical  Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. 
MINUTE  Date and time  Converts a serial number to a minute. 
MINVERSE  Math and trigonometry  Returns the matrix inverse of an array. 
MIRR  Financial  Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates. 
MMULT  Math and trigonometry  Returns the matrix product of two arrays. 
MOD  Math and trigonometry  Returns the remainder from division. 
MODE  Compatibility  Returns the most common value in a data set. 
MODE.MULT  Statistical  Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data. 
MODE.SNGL  Statistical  Returns the most common value in a data set. 
MONTH  Date and time  Converts a serial number to a month. 
MROUND  Math and trigonometry  Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. 
MULTINOMIAL  Math and trigonometry  Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers. 
MUNIT  Math and trigonometry  Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension. 
N  Information  Returns a value converted to a number. 
NA  Information  Returns the error value #N/A. 
NEGBINOM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the negative binomial distribution. 
NEGBINOMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the negative binomial distribution. 
NETWORKDAYS  Date and time  Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates. 
NETWORKDAYS.INTL  Date and time  Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. 
NOMINAL  Financial  Returns the annual nominal interest rate. 
NORM.DIST  Statistical  Returns the normal cumulative distribution. 
NORM.INV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. 
NORM.S.DIST  Statistical  Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. 
NORM.S.INV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. 
NORMDIST  Compatibility  Returns the normal cumulative distribution. 
NORMINV  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. 
NORMSDIST  Compatibility  Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. 
NORMSINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. 
NOT  Logical  Reverses the logic of its argument. 
NOW  Date and time  Returns the serial number of the current date and time. 
NPER  Financial  Returns the number of periods for an investment. 
NPV  Financial  Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. 
NUMBERVALUE  Text  Converts text to number in a localeindependent manner. 
OCT2BIN  Engineering  Converts an octal number to binary. 
OCT2DEC  Engineering  Converts an octal number to decimal. 
OCT2HEX  Engineering  Converts an octal number to hexadecimal. 
ODD  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer. 
ODDFPRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period. 
ODDFYIELD  Financial  Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period. 
ODDLPRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period. 
ODDLYIELD  Financial  Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period. 
OFFSET  Lookup and reference  Returns a reference offset from a given reference. 
OR  Logical  Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE. 
PDURATION  Financial  Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value. 
PEARSON  Statistical  Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. 
PERCENTILE  Compatibility  Returns the kth percentile of values in a range. 
PERCENTILE.EXC  Statistical  Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive. 
PERCENTILE.INC  Statistical  Returns the kth percentile of values in a range. 
PERCENTRANK  Compatibility  Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. 
PERCENTRANK.EXC  Statistical  Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set. 
PERCENTRANK.INC  Statistical  Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. 
PERMUT  Statistical  Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects. 
PERMUTATIONA  Statistical  Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects. 
PHI  Statistical  Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution. 
PI  Math and trigonometry  Returns the value of pi. 
PMT  Financial  Returns the periodic payment for an annuity. 
POISSON  Compatibility  Returns the Poisson distribution. 
POISSON.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Poisson distribution. 
POWER  Math and trigonometry  Returns the result of a number raised to a power. 
PPMT  Financial  Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period. 
PRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. 
PRICEDISC  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security. 
PRICEMAT  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. 
PROB  Statistical  Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. 
PRODUCT  Math and trigonometry  Multiplies its arguments. 
PROPER  Text  Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value. 
PV  Financial  Returns the present value of an investment. 
QUARTILE  Compatibility  Returns the quartile of a data set. 
QUARTILE.EXC  Statistical  Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive. 
QUARTILE.INC  Statistical  Returns the quartile of a data set. 
QUOTIENT  Math and trigonometry  Returns the integer portion of a division. 
RADIANS  Math and trigonometry  Converts degrees to radians. 
RAND  Math and trigonometry  Returns a random number between 0 and 1. 
RANDARRAY  Lookup and reference  Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. 
RANDBETWEEN  Math and trigonometry  Returns a random number between the numbers you specify. 
RANK  Compatibility  Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. 
RANK.AVG  Statistical  Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. 
RANK.EQ  Statistical  Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. 
RATE  Financial  Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. 
RECEIVED  Financial  Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security. 
REDUCE  Logical  Reduces an array to an accumulated value by applying a LAMBDA to each value and returning the total value in the accumulator. 
REPLACE  Text 
Replaces characters within text. 
REPLACEB  Text 
Replaces characters within text. REPLACEB counts each doublebyte character as 2 when you have enabled the editing of a language that supports DBCS and then set it as the default language. Otherwise, REPLACEB behaves the same as REPLACE, counting each character as 1. 
REPT  Text  Repeats text a given number of times. 
RIGHT  Text 
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value. 
RIGHTB  Text 
Returns the rightmost characters from a text value. RIGHTB counts each doublebyte character as 2 when you have enabled the editing of a language that supports DBCS and then set it as the default language. Otherwise, RIGHTB behaves the same as RIGHT, counting each character as 1. 
ROMAN  Math and trigonometry  Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text. 
ROUND  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. 
ROUNDDOWN  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number down, toward zero. 
ROUNDUP  Math and trigonometry  Rounds a number up, away from zero. 
ROW  Lookup and reference  Returns the row number of a reference. 
ROWS  Lookup and reference  Returns the number of rows in a reference. 
RRI  Financial  Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment. 
RSQ  Statistical  Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. 
SCAN  Logical  Scans an array by applying a LAMBDA to each value and returns an array that has each intermediate value. 
SEARCH  Text  Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive). 
SEARCHB  Text 
Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive). SEARCHB counts 2 bytes per character when a DBCS language is set as the default language. Otherwise behaves the same as SEARCH, counting 1 byte per character. 
SEC  Math and trigonometry  Returns the secant of an angle. 
SECH  Math and trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle. 
SECOND  Date and Time  Converts a serial number to a second. 
SEQUENCE  Lookup and reference  Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4. 
SERIESSUM  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula. 
SHEET  Information  Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet. 
SHEETS  Information  Returns the number of sheets in a reference. 
SIGN  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sign of a number. 
SIN  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sine of the given angle. 
SINGLE  Lookup and reference  Returns a single value, a single cell range or an error using the intersection logic. 
SINH  Math and trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. 
SKEW  Statistical  Returns the skewness of a distribution. 
SKEW.P  Statistical  Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. 
SLN  Financial  Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period. 
SLOPE  Statistical  Returns the slope of the linear regression line. 
SMALL  Statistical  Returns the kth smallest value in a data set. 
SORT  Lookup and reference  Sorts the contents of a range or array. 
SORTBY  Lookup and reference  Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array. 
SQRT  Math and trigonometry  Returns a positive square root. 
SQRTPI  Math and trigonometry  Returns the square root of (number * pi). 
STANDARDIZE  Statistical  Returns a normalized value. 
STDEV  Compatibility  Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. 
STDEV.P  Statistical  Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. 
STDEV.S  Statistical  Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. 
STDEVA  Statistical  Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
STDEVP  Compatibility  Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. 
STDEVPA  Statistical  Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
STEYX  Statistical  Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue for each x in the regression. 
SUBSTITUTE  Text  Substitutes new text for old text in a text string. 
SUBTOTAL  Math and trigonometry  Returns a subtotal in a list or database. 
SUM  Math and trigonometry  Adds its arguments. 
SUMIF  Math and trigonometry  Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. 
SUMIFS  Math and trigonometry  Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. 
SUMPRODUCT  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components. 
SUMSQ  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments. 
SUMX2MY2  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. 
SUMX2PY2  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. 
SUMXMY2  Math and trigonometry  Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. 
SWITCH  Logical  Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. 
SYD  Financial  Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. 
T  Text  Converts its arguments to text. 
TAKE  Array Manipulation  Returns rows or columns of an array either from the beginning or the end of the provided array 
T.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution. 
T.DIST.2T  Statistical  Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution. 
T.DIST.RT  Statistical  Returns the Student's tdistribution. 
T.INV  Statistical  Returns the tvalue of the Student's tdistribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. 
T.INV.2T  Statistical  Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution. 
T.TEST  Statistical  Returns the probability associated with a Student's ttest. 
TAN  Math and trigonometry  Returns the tangent of a number. 
TANH  Math and trigonometry  Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. 
TBILLEQ  Financial  Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury bill. 
TBILLPRICE  Financial  Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill. 
TBILLYIELD  Financial  Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. 
TDIST  Compatibility  Returns the Student's tdistribution. 
TEXT  Text  Formats a number and converts it to text. 
TEXTAFTER  Text Manipulation  Returns text present after the provided delimiting character 
TEXTBEFORE  Text Manipulation  Returns text present before the provided delimiting character 
TEXTSPLIT  Text Manipulation  Splits text between rows or columns using the delimiting character 
TEXTJOIN  Text  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. 
TIME  Date and time  Returns the serial number of a particular time. 
TIMEVALUE  Date and time  Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number. 
TINV  Compatibility  Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution. 
TOCOL  Array Manipulation  Returns the array as one column 
TODAY  Date and time  Returns the serial number of today's date. 
TOROW  Array Manipulation  Returns the array as one row 
TRANSPOSE  Lookup and reference  Returns the transpose of an array. 
TREND  Statistical  Returns values along a linear trend. 
TRIM  Text  Removes spaces from text. 
TRIMMEAN  Statistical  Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. 
TRUE  Logical  Returns the logical value TRUE. 
TRUNC  Math and trigonometry  Truncates a number to an integer. 
TTEST  Compatibility  Returns the probability associated with a Student's ttest. 
TYPE  Information  Returns a number indicating the data type of a value. 
UNICHAR  Text  Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value. 
UNICODE  Text  Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text. 
UNIQUE  Lookup and reference  Returns a list of unique values in a list or range. 
UPPER  Text  Converts text to uppercase. 
VALUE  Text  Converts a text argument to a number. 
VAR  Compatibility  Estimates variance based on a sample. 
VAR.P  Statistical  Calculates variance based on the entire population. 
VAR.S  Statistical  Estimates variance based on a sample. 
VARA  Statistical  Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
VARP  Compatibility  Calculates variance based on the entire population. 
VARPA  Statistical  Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
VDB  Financial  Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method. 
VLOOKUP  Lookup and reference  Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell. 
VSTACK  Array Manipulation  Stack arrays vertically 
WEBSERVICE  Web  Returns data from a web service on the Internet or Intranet. 
WEEKDAY  Date and time  Converts a serial number to a day of the week. 
WEEKNUM  Date and time  Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year. 
WEIBULL  Compatibility  Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. 
WEIBULL.DIST  Statistical  Returns the Weibull distribution. 
WORKDAY  Date and time  Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays. 
WORKDAY.INTL  Date and time  Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. 
WRAPCOLS  Array Manipulation  Wraps a column array in a 2D array 
WRAPROWS  Array Manipulation  Wraps a row array in a 2D array 
XIRR  Financial  Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. 
XLOOKUP  Lookup and reference  Searches a range or an array, and then returns the item corresponding to the first match it finds. If no match exists, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match. 
XMATCH  Lookup and reference  Searches for a specified item in an array or range of cells, and then returns the item's relative position. 
XNPV  Financial  Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. 
XOR  Logical  Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments. 
YEAR  Date and time  Converts a serial number to a year. 
YEARFRAC  Date and time  Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date. 
YIELD  Financial  Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest. 
YIELDDISC  Financial  Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill. 
YIELDMAT  Financial  Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity. 
Z.TEST  Statistical  Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest. 
ZTEST  Compatibility  Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest. 